Model Civil Jury Charges

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Model Civil Jury Charges Automated System (MCJCAS)

MCJCAS Instructions


Instructions To Jurors Before Voir Dire
1.10A Welcome and Explanation of Nature of Case .doc .pdf
1.10B Duty of Citizens to Serve as Jurors .doc .pdf
1.10C Excusing Jurors for Personal Reasons Based on Length of Trial .doc .pdf
1.10D Number of Jurors to be Selected and Procedure for taking Position in Jury Box .doc .pdf
1.10E Counsel's Right to Peremptory Challenges .doc .pdf
1.10F Introduction of Parties, Counsel and Potential Witnesses .doc .pdf
1.10G Identification of Potential Witnesses .doc .pdf
1.10H Particularized Questions .doc .pdf
1.10I Excusing the Balancing of the Jury after Selection is Complete .doc .pdf
Preliminary Charge (After Jury is Sworn in but before the Openings)
1.11A Role of Jury, Court and Attorneys .doc .pdf
1.11B Prohibition against Discussing the Case .doc .pdf
1.11C Jurors Not to Visit the Accident Scene or Do Investigations .doc .pdf
1.11D Note-Taking .doc .pdf
1.11E Outline of Order of Events .doc .pdf
1.11F Jury of Six — Alternates .doc .pdf
1.11G Settling Defendants .doc .pdf
1.11H Scheduling .doc .pdf
1.11I Cell Phone, Pager and other Wireless Communication Devices .doc .pdf
1.12 (Intro) General Provisions and Standard Charge .doc .pdf
1.12A Purpose of Charge .doc .pdf
1.12B Role of the Judge .doc .pdf
1.12C Role of the Attorneys .doc .pdf
1.12D Role of the Jury .doc .pdf
1.12E The Evidence .doc .pdf
1.12F Contention of the Parties .doc .pdf
1.12G Burden of Proof .doc .pdf
1.12H Preponderance of the Evidence (short version) .doc .pdf
1.12I Preponderance of the Evidence (long version) .doc .pdf
1.12J Direct and Circumstantial Evidence or Inferences .doc .pdf
1.12K Credibility (short version) .doc .pdf
1.12L Credibility (long version) .doc .pdf
1.12M False in One – False in All .doc .pdf
1.12N Liability .doc .pdf
1.12O Damages .doc .pdf
1.12P No Prejudice, Passion, Bias or Sympathy .doc .pdf
1.12Q Deliberations .doc .pdf
1.12R Alternates .doc .pdf
1.12S Verdict .doc .pdf
1.12T Jury Verdict Sheet .doc .pdf
1.12U Communications with Court (long version) .doc .pdf
1.12V Communications with Court (short version) .doc .pdf
1.12W Thanking the Jury .doc .pdf
1.12X Exceptions of Counsel .doc .pdf
1.12Y Reduce Jury to Six .doc .pdf
1.12Z Designate the Foreperson .doc .pdf
1.12AA Swear the Attendants .doc .pdf
1.12BB Lawyers Check Exhibits .doc .pdf
1.12CC Send Jury to Deliberate .doc .pdf
1.12DD Receiving Verdict .doc .pdf
1.12EE Thanking and Discharging Jury .doc .pdf
1.13 Expert Testimony .doc .pdf
1.13A Optional Charge Concerning Hypothetical Questions .doc .pdf
1.13B Optional Charge in Case of Conflicting Expert Testimony .doc .pdf
1.13C Optional Charge Concerning Fee Paid to Expert .doc .pdf
1.13D Optional Charge Concerning Statements from Publications .doc .pdf
1.13E Optional Charge Concerning Experts Relying on Hearsay Statements of Non-Testifying Experts .doc .pdf
1.14 Instructions to the Parties, Counsel and Spectators Who Have Been Closely following Trial, After Jury Has Retired to Deliberate (Regarding Outbursts) .doc .pdf
1.15 Note-Taking By Jurors .doc .pdf
1.16 Alternate Juror Empanelled After Deliberations Have Begun; R. 1:8 2(d) .doc .pdf
1.17 Instructions To Jury In Cases In Which One Or More Defendants Have Settled With The Plaintiff .doc .pdf
1.18 Witness:  Failure of A Party To Produce .doc .pdf
1.19 Burden Of Proof — Clear and Convincing Evidence .doc .pdf
1.20 Supplemental Instructions As To Further Deliberations By Jury .doc .pdf
1.21 Instructions To Jury In Hit-And-Run Cases In Which The Commissioner Of Insurance is Impleaded As A Defendant .doc .pdf
1.22 Expedited Jury Trials (Preliminary and Post Trial Instructions) .doc .pdf
1.23 Preliminary Instructions Regarding Juror's Questions .doc .pdf
1.24 Final Instructions Regarding Jurors’ Questions .doc .pdf
1.25 Optional Charge Concerning Video Recorded Testimony .doc .pdf


Common Law Employment Claims
2.11 Wrongful Discharge In Violation Of A Public Policy .doc .pdf
2.12 Personnel Manual Creating A Contract .doc .pdf
2.13 Oral Promises Creating An Enforceable Contract .doc .pdf
2.14 Exceptions To The Employment-At-Will Doctrine: Unwritten Personnel Policy Regarding Termination of Employment .doc .pdf
2.15 Good Faith and Fair Dealing .doc .pdf
2.16 Defamation and Employment .doc .pdf
Statutory Discrimination and Retaliation Employment Claims
2.21 New Jersey Law Against Discrimination (LAD) .doc .pdf
2.22 LAD Retaliation .doc .pdf
2.22A Law Against Discrimination (LAD) Individual Liability Claims .doc .pdf
2.23 Discriminatory Layoff or Reduction In Force (RIF) .doc .pdf
2.24 Wage Disparity Under The NJLAD .doc .pdf
2.25 Hostile Work Environment (Sexual, Age and Other Harassment) .doc .pdf
2.26 Failure To Accommodate Employee With Disability Under The New Jersey Law Against Discrimination .doc .pdf
2.31 Wage Disparity Under The Equal Pay Act   [29 U.S.C. 206 (D)(1)] .doc .pdf
2.32 New Jersey Conscientious Employee Protection Act (CEPA) .doc .pdf
2.33 Wrongful Discharge; Mitigation of Economic Damages .doc .pdf
2.34 Mitigation Of Damages - Front Pay .doc .pdf
2.35 Past Emotional Distress in an Employment Law Case .doc .pdf
2.36 Past and Future Emotional Distress in an Employment Law Case .doc .pdf


3.10 Assault And Battery .doc .pdf
3.11A Public Defamation .doc .pdf
3.11B Private Defamation .doc .pdf
3.12 Malicious Prosecution (Prior Criminal Proceeding) .doc .pdf
3.13 Malicious Prosecution (Prior Civil Proceeding) .doc .pdf
3.14 Invasion Of Privacy .doc .pdf
False Imprisonment (False Arrest)
3.20A General Rules To Be Charged In All Cases .doc .pdf
3.20B Defense Or Legal Authority For Confinement .doc .pdf
3.20C Citizen's Arrest For A Crime Without A Warrant .doc .pdf
3.20D Police Arrest Without A Warrant .doc .pdf
3.20E Arrest Without Warrant For Disorderly Person's Offense Or Breach Of Peace .doc .pdf
3.20F Shoplifting (N.J.S.A. 2C:20‑11) .doc .pdf
3.30A Unlawful Interference With Prospective Economic Advantage .doc .pdf
3.30B Tortious Interference With Contractual Relations .doc .pdf
3.30C Unlawful Interference With Contractual Relations .doc .pdf
3.30D Abuse Of Process .doc .pdf
3.30E Fraud — Deceit .doc .pdf
3.30F Intentional Infliction Of Emotional Distress .doc .pdf


Bilateral Contracts
4.10A The Contract Claim — Generally .doc .pdf
4.10B Third Party Beneficiary .doc .pdf
4.10C Existence Of A Legally Enforceable Contract .doc .pdf
4.10D Form Of Contract .doc .pdf
4.10E Express Or Implied Contract .doc .pdf
4.10F Contingent Contract .doc .pdf
4.10G Contract To Be Memorialized In Writing .doc .pdf
4.10H Interpretation Of Contract Terms .doc .pdf
4.10I Modification .doc .pdf
4.10J Implied Terms - Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing .doc .pdf
4.10K PromissoryEstoppel .doc .pdf
4.10L Claims Of Breach .doc .pdf
4.10M Anticipatory Breach .doc .pdf
4.10N Affirmative Defenses .doc .pdf
4.20 Time Of Performance Where Contract Is Silent .doc .pdf
4.21 Breach Of Express Warranty On Sale Of Goods .doc .pdf
4.22 Breach Of Implied Warranty Of Fitness For Particular Purpose Under U.C.C. .doc .pdf
4.23 Duress .doc .pdf
4.24 Third Party Beneficiary .doc .pdf
Building Contracts
4.30A Building Contracts ‑ Substantial Performance Of Builder .doc .pdf
4.30B Building Contracts ‑ Extras .doc .pdf
4.30C Builder Fails To Prove Substantial Performance And Sues In Quasi‑Contract .doc .pdf
Other Contract Actions
4.40 Real Estate Brokers Commission ‑ Statute Of Fraud (N.J.S.A. 25:1‑9) .doc .pdf
4.41 Bailment .doc .pdf
4.42 Intentionally Left Blank    
4.43 Consumer Fraud Act .doc .pdf
4.44 Deficiency — Sale of Collateral As Commercially Reasonable .doc .pdf
4.45 Motor Vehicle Lemon Law (Includes Lemon Law Model Jury Verdict Sheet) .doc .pdf


5.10A Negligence And Ordinary Care ‑ General .doc .pdf
5.10B Forseeability (As Affecting Negligence) .doc .pdf
5.10C Undertaking Voluntarily Assumed .doc .pdf
5.10D Res Ipsa Loquitur .doc .pdf
5.10E Act Of God .doc .pdf
5.10F Emotional Distress From Witnessing Serious Injury To An Intimate Family Member .doc .pdf
5.10G Sudden Emergency .doc .pdf
5.10H Standards Of Construction, Custom And Usage In Industry Or Trade .doc .pdf
5.10I Agency (A) Master/Servant (B)Respondant Superior .doc .pdf
5.10J Evidence of and Per Se Negligence .doc .pdf
5.11 Assumption Of Risk ‑ In The Primary Sense .doc .pdf
5.12 Gross Negligence .doc .pdf
Real Property Condition and Owners Occupants and Lessors
5.20A Dangerous Condition Of Public Property .doc .pdf
5.20B Liability for Defects In Public Streets And Sidewalks .doc .pdf
5.20C Duty Of Owner To Tenant Leasing Entire Premises And To Others On Premises .doc .pdf
5.20D Duty Of Owner Of Multi‑Family House To Tenants And Others .doc .pdf
5.20E Activity Of Owner/Occupier As Distinguished From Condition of Premises .doc .pdf
5.20F Duty Owed — Condition Of Premises .doc .pdf
5.20G Liability Of Former Owner Of Commercial Property For Defects Or Other Dangerous Conditions In Abutting Sidewalks .doc .pdf
5.20H Dangerous Instrumentalities Or Conditions .doc .pdf
5.20I Duty Of A Supermarket To A Business Invitee Walking In One Of The Aisles .doc .pdf
5.21 Duty Of Railroad At Public Highway Grade Crossing .doc .pdf
Motor Vehicle And Highway
5.30A General Duty Owing .doc .pdf
5.30B U-Turn .doc .pdf
5.30C Left-Hand Turn .doc .pdf
5.30D Violation Of Traffic Act .doc .pdf
5.30E Effect Of Black Out .doc .pdf
5.30F Liability For Injury Due To Mechanical Defect Or Failure .doc .pdf
5.30G Duty Of Automobile Driver To Make Observations .doc .pdf
5.30H Duty Of Care:  Driver Of Motor Vehicle Proceeding Through An Intersection Controlled By A Stop Sign/Flashing Red Traffic Control Device .doc .pdf
5.30I Duty Of Care: Driver Of Motor Vehicle Proceeding Through An Intersection With A Flashing Amber Traffic Control Device .doc .pdf
5.30J Duty of Care Proceeding Through Intersection With Green Light [The Favored Driver] .doc .pdf
5.30K Nonuse Of Seatbelt On Issue Of Negligence .doc .pdf
5.30L Effect Of Intoxication On Duty Owing (By Automobile Driver) .doc .pdf
5.31A Duty Of Care Intersection Approached By Emergency Vehicle (To Be Used If Emergency Vehicle Is Involved) .doc .pdf
5.31B Duty Of Care Of Emergency Vehicle .doc .pdf
5.32A Duty Of Pedestrians And Bicyclists To Make Observations .doc .pdf
5.32B Duty Of A Pedestrian When Crossing At A Point Other Than A Crosswalk .doc .pdf
5.32C Duty of Drivers and Pedestrians Crossing at Marked or Unmarked Crosswalk .doc .pdf
5.33A Verbal Threshold (Type 6, 7, 8 or 9 Injuries) .doc .pdf
5.33B Limitation On Lawsuit Option .doc .pdf
5.34 Photographic Evidence in Motor vehicle Accidents .doc .pdf
Products Liability
5.40A Products Liability — Introduction .doc .pdf
5.40B Manufacturing Defect .doc .pdf
5.40C Failure To Warn/Instruct .doc .pdf
5.40D-1 Design Defect — Generally .doc .pdf
5.40D-2 Design Defect — Introductory Statement To Jury (All cases) .doc .pdf
5.40D-3 Design Defect — Legal Tests Of Product Defect .doc .pdf
5.40D-4 Design Defect — Defenses .doc .pdf
5.40E Crashworthiness — Special Issues .doc .pdf
5.40F Defect Before Sale .doc .pdf
5.40G Product Misuse Or Alteration .doc .pdf
5.40H Foreseeable User Or Victim .doc .pdf
5.40I Proximate Cause .doc .pdf
5.40J Comparative Fault .doc .pdf
5.40K Summary .doc .pdf
5.40L Negligence .doc .pdf
5.40M Express Warranty .doc .pdf
Medical Negligence
5.50 Apparent Authority Charge .doc .pdf
5.50A Duty and Negligence .doc .pdf
5.50B Common Knowledge Standard of Care .doc .pdf
5.50C Informed Consent (Competent Adult and No Emergency) .doc .pdf
5.50D Intentionally Left Blank    
5.50E Pre-Existing Condition — Increased Risk/Loss of Chance — Proximate Cause .doc .pdf
5.50F Wrongful Birth and Life .doc .pdf
5.50G Medical Judgment .doc .pdf
5.50H Alteration Of Medical Records .doc .pdf
5.50I Fraudulent Concealment Of Medical Records .doc .pdf
Attorney Negligence
5.51A Legal  Malpractice .doc .pdf
5.51B Proximate Cause - Inadequate or Incomplete Legal Advice .doc .pdf
Other Professional Negligence
5.52 Professional Liability Of An Architect/ Engineer .doc .pdf
5.60A Statutory Owner ‑ Dog Bite Liability (N.J.S.A. 4:19‑16) .doc .pdf
5.60B Animal With Vicious Or Dangerous Trait Or Propensity (Other Than An Owner Dog Bite Case) .doc .pdf
Other Negligence Actions
5.70 Parental Supervision — Unemancipated Child For Personal Injuries .doc .pdf
5.71 Tavern Keepers Serving Minors And Intoxicated Persons .doc .pdf
5.72 Proprietor's Duty Of Care To Patrons Against Criminal Activity Of Third Persons .doc .pdf
5.73 Common Carrier for Hire .doc .pdf
5.74 Duty Of Teachers And School Personnel To Student .doc .pdf
5.75 Nuisance .doc .pdf
5.76 Negligent Hiring .doc .pdf


6.10 Proximate Cause — General Charge To Be Given In All Cases .doc .pdf
6.11 Proximate Cause — Routine Tort Where No Issues Of Concurrent Or Intervening Causes, Or Foreseeability Of Injury Or Harm .doc .pdf
6.12 Proximate Cause — Claim That Concurrent Causes of Harm Were Present .doc .pdf
6.13 Proximate Cause — Claim That Concurrent Causes of Harm Are Present And Claim That Specific Harm Was Not Foreseeable .doc .pdf
6.14 Proximate Cause — Claim of Intervening or Superseding Cause .doc .pdf


7.10 Contributory Negligence .doc .pdf
7.11 Care Required Of Children (7 Years and Older) (Under 7 Years) .doc .pdf
7.12 Duty Of Passenger In Automobile .doc .pdf
7.13 Negligence — Intoxication (Riding With Intoxicated Driver) .doc .pdf
7.14 Negligence — Effect of Physical Impairment .doc .pdf
7.15 Negligence — Care Required Of Pedestrian On Sidewalk .doc .pdf
7.16 Negligence — Acts or Misconduct Are Willful, Wanton or Malicious or In Reckless Disregard Of One's Safety Or Are Intentional Acts .doc .pdf
7.20 Federal Employers Liability Act — Comparative Negligence .doc .pdf
7.21 Jones Act — Comparative Negligence .doc .pdf
7.22 Third Party Action under Longshoreman's and Harbor Workers Compensation Act — Comparative Negligence .doc .pdf
7.30 Comparative Negligence — (Auto) — All Issues .doc .pdf
7.31 Comparative Negligence:  Ultimate Outcome .doc .pdf
7.32 Comparative Negligence:  Interrogatories .doc .pdf


8.10 Damages — Effect of Instruction — Personal Injury Case Verdict Sheet .doc .pdf
8.11A Medical Expenses (Non Auto) .doc .pdf
8.11B Duty To Mitigate Damages By Medical And Surgical Treatment .doc .pdf
8.11C Loss of Earnings .doc .pdf
8.11D Loss Of Profits .doc .pdf
8.11E Disability, Impairment And Loss Of The Enjoyment Of Life, Pain And Suffering .doc .pdf
8.11F Aggravation Of The Preexisting Disability .doc .pdf
8.11G Life Expectancy .doc .pdf
8.11H Capitalization .doc .pdf
8.11I Future Medical Expenses .doc .pdf
Damages — Motor Vehicle
8.20 Medical Expenses (Auto) .doc .pdf
8.21 Nonuse of Seatbelt Including Ultimate Outcome (Includes Jury Verdict Sheet) .doc .pdf
Damages — Per Quod
8.30A Medical Expenses .doc .pdf
8.30B Loss Of Spouse's Services, Society And Consortium .doc .pdf
8.30C Loss Of Child's Services And Earnings .doc .pdf
Damages — Other Causes
8.40 Trespass To Real Property .doc .pdf
8.41 Conversion .doc .pdf
8.42 Survival Action .doc .pdf
8.43 Wrongful Death .doc .pdf
8.44 Personal Property .doc .pdf
8.45 Breach of Contract .doc .pdf
8.46 Defamation Damages (Private Or Public) .doc .pdf
8.47A Malicious Prosecution Based Upon Prior Criminal Proceeding .doc .pdf
8.47B Malicious Prosecution Based Upon Prior Civil Proceedings .doc .pdf
8.47C False Imprisonment (False Arrest) .doc .pdf
8.48 Tax Consequences Of Personal Injury Award .doc .pdf
8.49 Supervisory Sexual Harassment .doc .pdf
8.50 Invasion Of Privacy Damages .doc .pdf
Damages — Punitive Damages
8.60 Punitive Damages Actions — General .doc .pdf
8.61 Punitive Damages — Law Against Discrimination (LAD) Claims .doc .pdf
8.62 Punitive Damages Actions — Products Liability .doc .pdf
8.63 Punitive Damages - New Jersey Conscientious Employee Protection Act (CEPA) Claims .doc .pdf
Damages – Tort Claim Act
8.70 Tort Claims Act Threshold For Recovery Of Damages For Pain And Suffering .doc .pdf


9.10 Condemnation — Generally .doc .pdf
9.11 Condemnation — Highest And Best Use .doc .pdf
9.12 Condemnation — Methods Of Computing Fair Market .doc .pdf
9.13 Condemnation — Machinery .doc .pdf
9.14 Condemnation — Partial Taking (Severance Damages) .doc .pdf
9.15 Condemnation — Taking Publicly Owned Properties .doc .pdf


10.10 Civil In Rem Forfeiture Actions .doc .pdf
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